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2017年谁能建立赌博的网站真题听力 Mini-lecture(3)

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While speech and writing are often viewed as discrete modes, it is important for us to note that there is a continuum between speech and writing.

“说”和“写”通常被看作两个各自独立的模式,但是,要留意,“说”和“写”之间也存在着继续统一体。
While speech is in general more interactive than writing, various kinds of spoken and written English display various degrees of interactivity.
“说”普通比“写”更具交互性,而不同种类的书面英语和英语口语也表现出了不同程度的交互性。
For instance, various linguistic markers of interactive discourse, such as first and second person pronouns, contractions, and private verbs such as think and feel, occurred very frequently in telephone and face-to-face conversations but less frequently in spontaneous speeches, interviews, and broadcasts.
譬如,许多交际话语的语言学标记,如第一、二人称代词,缩写词,以及“认为”、“感觉”之类的私动词,都常常浮现在电话交谈和面对面交谈中,在即兴演讲、访问和广播中浮现频率较低。
In addition, some kinds of writing, such as academic prose and official documents, exhibited few markers of interactive discourse, but the other kinds of written texts, particularly personal letters, ranked higher on the scale of interactivity than many of the spoken texts.
另外,许多种书面形式,譬如学术文章和官方文件,都极少浮现交际话语的标记,但是另外种类的书面文本,非常是私人信件,比许多口语语篇的交互性都要强。
In other words, how language is structured depends less on whether it is spoken or written but more on how it is being used.
换句话说,语言的组织形式,与采用“说”还是“写”的模式关系较小,与实际用途关系比较大。
For example, a personal letter, even though it is written, will contain linguistic features marking interactivity because the writer of a letter wishes to interact with the receiver of the letter.
譬如,私人信件虽然是书面的,也具有许多带有交互性的语言学特征。由于写信者巴望和收信人产生互动。
On the other hand, in an interview, the goal is not to interact necessarily but to 网上电子游艺娱乐网站information from the person being interviewed.
而访问,目的不是交流,而是获得被访问人的信息。
Therefore, though interviews are spoken, they have fewer markers of interactivity and contain more features typically associated with written texts.
因此,虽然访问采用了“说”的模式,却没有那么多交互性标记,而是包括了许多书面文本的常见特征。
OK, to sum up, we have been dealing with the modes of language in today's lecture.
好了,总结一下,我们今天讲了语言的模式。
The two most frequently used modes are speech and writing.
两种最常用的模式就是口语和书面语。
As two different modes of language, speech and writing have their own characteristics.
这两种语言模式各有特点。
Speech is a preferred mode in many social contacts where interactivity is needed.
要求交互性的社会交往中,往往采用口语的形式。
Of course, when a formal stable record is preferred, writing should be an appropriate mode.
当然,如果需要形成正式且持久的记录,书面形式则比较合适。
Finally, I have also emphasized that there is a continuum between speech and writing.
最后,我还要强调,口语和书面语中间存在着继续统一体。
In the following lecture, we will concentrate on the linguistic structures of language.
下次上课,我们要讲到语言的语言学结构。
Thank you!
谢谢大家!

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contain [kən'tein]

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vt. 包括,容纳,克制,抑制
vi. 自制

遐想记忆
mode [məud]

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n. 方式,样式,模式,风格,时兴
n.

 
display [di'splei]

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n. 显示,陈列,炫耀
vt. 显示,表现,夸

 
addition [ə'diʃən]

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n. 增添,附加物,加法

遐想记忆
academic [.ækə'demik]

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adj. 学术的,学院的,理论的
n.

 
prose [prəuz]

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adj. 散文的
n. 散文

 
social ['səuʃəl]

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adj. 社会的,社交的
n. 社交聚会

 
concentrate ['kɔnsntreit]

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v. 集中,用心,浓缩
n. 浓缩物

遐想记忆
spontaneous [spɔn'teiniəs]

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adj. 自发的,自然产生的

遐想记忆
linguistic [liŋ'gwistik]

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adj. 语言的,语言学的

 

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