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2016年谁能建立赌博的网站真题听力 Mini-lecture(2)

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First, it elevates tactics over substance.

首先,它将技巧置于内容之上。
You can take a class in logic argumentation.
你可以去上一节逻辑辩论课。
You learn all about the strategies that people use to try and win arguments and that makes arguing adversarial; it's polarizing.
你可以学到几乎所有人们常用的辩论技巧去赢得辩论,这些技巧将辩论两极化,对抗化。
And the only foreseeable outcomes are triumph, glorious triumph, or disgraceful defeat.
可预见的结果只有光荣的成功或者可耻的败北。
I think those are very destructive effects, and worst of all, it seems to prevent things like negotiation and collaboration.
我觉得那些技巧是具有杀伤力的,它将协商合作这些事排除在外。
Um, I think the argument-as-war metaphor inhibits those other kinds of resolutions to argumentation.
我觉得,将辩论看作战争这个隐喻排除了另外各种解决争论的方案。
And finally, this is really the worst thing, arguments don't seem to 网上电子游艺娱乐网站us anywhere; they're dead ends.
最后,最糟糕的是,这样的辩论并没有得出任何结论,变成了死胡同。
We don't 网上电子游艺娱乐网站anywhere.
无法得出任何结论。
Oh, and one more thing. That is, if argument is war, then there's also an implicit aspect of meaning, learning with losing.
哦!还有,如果辩论是战争的话,那么还有一点含义,就是汲取失败的教训。
And let me explain what I mean. Suppose you and I have an argument.
我解释一下。假设你和我在辩论。
You believe a proposition and I don't. And I say, "Well, why do you believe that?"
你相信一个命题而我不信。我就说:“你为什么相信这个?”
And you give me your reasons. And I object and say, "Well, what about...?"
你给出了你的理由,我反驳说,“那么……”
And you answer my objection.
你回答了我的反驳建议。
And I have a question: "Well, what do you mean?
我问:“那你是什么意思?
How does it apply over here?" And you answer my question.
那么在这个地方如何解释?”你回答了我的问题。
Now, suppose at the end of the day,
假设,这一天要结束了,
I've objected, I've questioned, I've raised all sorts of questions from an opposite perspective and in every case you've responded to my satisfaction.
我提出了反驳建议,提出了质疑,也从反面问了各种问题,你的回答都令我惬意。
And so at the end of the day, I say, "You know what? I guess you're right."
一天结束了,我说,“你知道吗?我觉得你是对的。”
Maybe finally I lost my argument.
最后我输了辩论。
But isn't it also a process of learning?
可是这不是学习的过程吗?
So you see arguments may also have positive effects.
所以,你看,辩论也有活跃用处的。
So, how can we find new ways to achieve those positive effects?
那么,我们要怎么找到实现这些活跃用处的新方式呢?
We need to think of new kinds of arguments.
我们要想出新的辩论。
Here I have some suggestions.
这里我有几个问题。
If we want to think of new kinds of arguments, what we need to do is think of new kinds of arguers, people who argue.
如果要想出新的辩论,我们需要想出新的辩论者,也就是参与辩论的人。
So try this:
试试这个办法:
Think of all the roles that people play in arguments.
想出辩论中人的所有角色。
There's the proponent and the opponent in an adversarial, dialectical argument.
对抗辩论,辨证辩论中有支撑者和反驳者。
There's the audience in rhetorical arguments.
修辞辩论中要有观众。
There's the reasoner in arguments as proofs.
把辩论当作依据,需要有人做推理。
All these different roles.
这些都是辩论中的不同角色。
Now, can you imagine an argument in which you are the arguer, but you're also in the audience, watching yourself argue?
现在想象一下,在一场论争中,你是辩论者,同时也是观众,看着你自己辩论。
Can you imagine yourself watching yourself argue?
你能想象自己看着自己辩论吗?
That means you need to be supported by yourself.
也就是说你要自己支撑自己。
Even when you lose the argument, still, at the end of the argument,you could say, "Wow, that was a good argument!"
这样即使最后输掉争论,你也可以说“好精彩的辩论啊!”
Can you do that? I think you can.
你可以做到吗?我觉得你可以的。
In this way, you've been supported by yourself. Up till now, I have lost a lot of arguments.
这样,你自己支撑自己。迄今为止,我已经输了很多场争论。
It really takes practice to become a good arguer, in the sense of being able to benefit from losing,
成为出色的辩论者真的需要练习,由于可以从失败中汲取教训。
but fortunately, I've had many, many colleagues who have been willing to step up and provide that practice for me.
不过,很幸运,我有很多同事,他们都愿意陪我练习。
OK. To sum up, in today's lecture, I have introduced three models of arguments.
总结一下,今天我介绍了三种辩论的模型。
The first model is called the dialectical model.
第一种叫作辩证模型。
The second one is the model of arguments as proofs.
第二种模型将辩论作为依据。
And the last one is called the rhetorical model, the model of arguments as performances.
最后一种叫作修辞模型,将辩论看作表演。
I have also emphasized that, though the adversarial type of arguments is quite common, we can still make arguments produce some positive effects.
要强调的是,虽然对抗式辩论非常常见,我们还是可以让辩论产生活跃用处。
Next time I will continue our discussion on the process of arguing.
下次我会继续商量辩论过程。

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重点单词   查看所有解释    
satisfaction [.sætis'fækʃən]

想一想再看

n. 赔偿,惬意,妥善解决,乐事,确信

遐想记忆
destructive [di'strʌktiv]

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adj. 破坏性的,有害的

遐想记忆
proposition [.prɔpə'ziʃən]

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n. 建议,命题,主张
vt. 向 ... 提

 
argumentation [.ɑ:gjumen'teiʃən]

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n. 争论,商量,论证

 
willing ['wiliŋ]

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adj. 愿意的,心甘情愿的

 
perspective [pə'spektiv]

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n. 远景,看法,透视
adj. 透视的

遐想记忆
substance ['sʌbstəns]

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n. 物质,实质,内容,重要性,财产

遐想记忆
negotiation [ni.gəuʃi'eiʃən]

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n. 谈判,协商

遐想记忆
defeat [di'fi:t]

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n. 败北,挫败
vt. 战胜,击败

遐想记忆
triumph ['traiəmf]

想一想再看

n. 凯旋,欢欣
vi. 得胜,成功,庆功

 

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