Maintaining a healthy weight-and making other smart lifestyle choices, like including limiting processed meat and alcohol-can reduce a person's cancer risk by up to 40%, according to a new report by the non-profit World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF).
The WCRF updates its recommendations for cancer prevention once every 10 years. The new guidelines, which will be presented this week at the European Congress on Obesity in Vienna, are based on a review of data from 51 million people, including 3.5 million cancer cases.
The findings from this latest review are mostly consistent with previous analyses done in 1997 and 2007. But the new guidelines offer the clearest and most up-to-date picture of which lifestyle factors influence cancer development, says Elisa Bandera, MD, a member of the panel that compiled and wrote the report. They also offer 10 concrete ways people can reduce their own personal risk.
"This is confirmation of what we already knew," says Dr. Bandera. "And that's important, because it involves this very thorough approach, looking at every possible point of evidence and the best quality data we have." About one in six deaths annually worldwide are currently due to cancer, and the number of cases is expected to increase 58% by 2035, as more countries adopt "Western" lifestyles.
While the previous WCRF report found a causal relationship between being overweight or obese and seven cancers, the new report increases that number to at least 12: liver, ovarian, advanced prostate, stomach, mouth and throat, colorectal, post-menopausal breast, gallbladder, kidney, esophageal, pancreatic, and uterine cancers. WCRF isn't the only group that's made a connection between obesity and cancer, either. A 2016 report by another non-profit, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, linked excess weight to 13 types of cancer.
虽然先前的WCRF报告发现了超重或肥胖与7种癌症之间存在因果关系，新的报告将癌症增添至起码12种：肝癌、卵巢癌、晚期前列腺癌、胃癌、口腔咽喉癌、结肠直肠癌、绝经后乳腺癌、胆囊癌、肾癌、食管癌、胰腺癌和子宫癌。WCRF并不是唯独一个将肥胖与癌症联系起来的组织。另一家非营利机构国际癌症研究机构（International Agency for Research on Cancer）的2016年报告将超重与13种癌症相联系。
To reduce your personal risk of cancer, the WCRF recommends the following 10 steps:
Maintain a healthy weight
Walk more and sit less
Eat more whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and beans
Avoid high-calorie foods
Limit consumption of red and processed meats
Limit consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks
Don't drink alcohol
Don't rely on supplements to protect against cancer
Breastfeed your baby for six months
Continue to follow the agency's recommendations after a cancer diagnosis